Local Anesthetic Formulations
You will receive 4 credit(s) of continuing education credit upon successful completion of this course. The purchase price of this course is $196.00


This course discusses local anesthetics (with and without vasopressors), precautions and potential drug interactions.


Learning Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to do the following:

  1. Explain the mechanism of action for local anesthetics and correlate chemical and physical properties with their clinical characteristics.
  2. Calculate the dose of local anesthetic and vasopressor included in anesthetic cartridges.
  3. Explain principal variables that influence systemic concentration following submucosal injections and describe systemic complications associated with local anesthetics, including their metabolites.
  4. Discuss issues regarding allergic reactions to local anesthetics and appropriate management of patients presenting a history of hypersensitivity.
  5. Explain the advantages of including vasopressors in local anesthetic solutions and state the effects mediated by each of the three principal adrenergic receptors.
  6. Distinguish the hemodynamic influences of epinephrine and levonordefrin and describe the appropriate use of these agents for patients with cardiovascular disorders.
  7. Explain the basis for putative interactions of vasopressors with antidepressants and nonselective beta-blockers, including appropriate management of patients receiving these medications.


This course is an update on the pharmacology and rational use of local anesthetics, those with and without vasopressors. Which anesthetics do you use and why? Do you really know the difference or do you select by habit? This course will review and update your knowledge on the appropriate use of local anesthetics and vasopressors and address the necessary precautions and potential drug interactions.

  1. General Properties of Local Anesthetics
  2. Clinical
  3. Molecular
  4. System Toxicity
  5. Dosage
    1. Systemic Serum Concentration
    2. Metabolites
    3. Allergy
  6. Agent Comparisons
    1. Maximum Dosages
  7. Vasopressors
    1. Cardiovascular Disease
      1. Epinephrine
      2. Levonordefrin

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